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The Federal Government proposed a number of changes to the taxation of Employee Stock Options in their March 4, 2010 budget. On August 27th the government released the draft legislation to implement their proposals. In our view the income tax rules for Employee Stock Options have always been somewhat problematic and often created tremendously punitive and arguably unfair results. These new rules alleviate some of the old tax problems, but have at the same time have introduced new cash flow challenges for companies and individuals. Below are our comments on some of the major aspects of the proposed changes.

In recent years, it seems that the arrival of spring has coincided with a natural or man-made disaster somewhere in Canada. Spring is also, of course, tax return preparation and filing season for most Canadian taxpayers, but it’s likely taxes were the last thing on the minds of families and individuals affected by this spring’s floods. And, in most cases, those families and individuals will not be penalized for failing, in such circumstances, to fulfill their tax obligations in a timely way.


For many years, post-secondary students have financed their educations in part through private savings and often in part through government student loans, which are generally interest-free while the student is in school. As well, the bulk of costs incurred to attend post-secondary education (or to finance it) have been eligible for a tax deduction or credit, at both the federal and provincial/territorial levels. Beginning in 2017, however, changes to that regime at both the federal level and in some provinces will mean changes to the way students (and their parents) pay for post-secondary education.  


If spring is the season for real estate sales in Canada, then summer is the time when all those real estate buyers and sellers pack up their belongings and move to their newly purchased homes. And, while buying a new home and making that move is usually something home buyers are doing by choice, that doesn’t make the actual process of moving any less stressful or costly.


Once they’ve completed and filed their 2016 tax return, most Canadians give a sigh of relief that the dreaded annual chore is done, and that income taxes will be out of sight and out of mind until the next filing deadline rolls around.

If all goes as planned, that is how events will unfold. In the best case scenario, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) will issue a Notice of Assessment which indicates that the Agency agrees with the taxpayer’s summary of his or her income, deductions, credits, and taxes payable for the past year, and that it has no further questions or concerns. And, for the vast majority of Canadians, that is exactly how things will unfold. For many others, however, there will be a few more questions to be answered or steps to be taken before the tax filing and assessment process for the year is finally completed.


Two quarterly newsletters have been added—one dealing with personal issues, and one dealing with corporate issues.


Older taxpayers who have recently completed and filed their tax returns for 2016 may face an unpleasant surprise when that return is assessed. The unpleasant surprise may come in the form of a notification that they are subject to the Old Age Security “recovery tax” – known much more familiarly to Canadians as the OAS clawback.


As just about everyone knows, individual income tax returns for the 2016 tax year must be filed, by most Canadians, and any tax balance owed must be paid by all individual Canadians, on or before May 1, 2017. And, most Canadians do file that return, and pay any tax balance owed, on or before the deadline. As of April 24, 2017, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) had received just over 18 million individual income tax returns for the 2016 tax year. There are, however, a significant minority of Canadians who don’t file a return, or pay taxes owed (or both) by the annual deadline. The reasons for that are as varied as the individuals involved. In some cases, taxpayers are unable to pay a tax balance owing by the deadline and they think (wrongly) that there’s no point to filing a return where taxes owed can’t be paid. They may even think that they can fly “under the radar” and escape at least the immediate notice of the tax authorities by not filing the return. In other cases, it is just procrastination – virtually no one actually likes completing their tax return, especially where there’s the possibility of a tax bill to be paid once that return is done.


The Canadian tax system is in a constant state of change and evolution, as new measures are introduced and existing ones are “tweaked” through a never-ending series of budgetary and other announcements. However, even by normal standards, 2017 is a year in which there are larger than usual number of tax changes affecting individual taxpayers. And, unfortunately, most of those changes involve the repeal of existing tax credits which are claimed by millions of Canadian taxpayers.


For the majority of Canadians, the due date for filing of an individual tax return for the 2016 tax year is May 1, 2017. (Self-employed Canadians and their spouses have until June 15, 2017 to get that return filed.) In the best of all possible worlds, the taxpayer, or his or her representative, will have prepared a return that is complete and correct, and filed it on time, and the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) will issue a Notice of Assessment indicating that the return is “assessed as filed”, meaning that the CRA agrees with the information filed and tax result obtained by the taxpayer. While that’s the outcome everyone is hoping for, it’s a result which can be “short-circuited” in a number of ways.


Two quarterly newsletters have been added—one dealing with personal issues, and one dealing with corporate issues.


While for elementary and secondary school students, the summer is just beginning, post-secondary students are already halfway through their summer break between school years. And, as summer starts winding down, these post-secondary students will start thinking about choosing courses and finding a place to live during the coming academic year. Their parents’ attention will more likely be focused on the cost of that year, and the upcoming deadlines for payment of first semester tuition and housing costs.


Canadians will go to the polls for the next federal election on October 19, 2015, and the campaign by all parties to win votes in that election is already on. And, while no two election campaigns are alike, either in the way they are run or the ultimate outcome, they all have one thing in common—money. It costs a great deal of money to run a national election campaign, and each party and candidate seeking election or re-election in October has been and will be seeking contributions from individual Canadians to help them finance their campaigns. The task of raising that money is made somewhat easier by the fact that Canadian taxpayers who donate money to political parties or candidates can claim a federal tax credit for those donations.


Conventional wisdom with respect to the cycle of income, debt, and savings over an individual’s lifetime is based on certain assumptions. Generally, it is assumed that Canadians in their 20s and 30s will see their financial affairs weighted far more heavily on the debt side of the equation, as they pay off student loans, buy a home (and take on a mortgage), and meet the financial demands of raising children while building a career. As those individuals move into their 40s and 50s, it’s assumed that the financial demands of raising that family will eventually decline and the mortgage will be paid off. As well, the two decades between 40 and 60 have traditionally been the peaking earning years and, as other financial obligations are reduced, some of those higher earnings can be redirected to saving for retirement. Ultimately, the cycle ends with retirement around the age of 60 or 65, with a paid-for home, no debt, and adequate savings for retirement.


Fraud isn’t and never has been a seasonal business—every day of the year, attempts are made to cheat individuals out of their hard-earned income or savings. There are, however, times of the year when some types of scams are more prevalent and tax scams flourish during tax filing season.


As the end of the school year draws closer, and with it the start of two months of summer holidays, families who don’t have a stay-at-home parent (and likely some who do) must start thinking about how to keep the kids supervised and busy throughout the summer months. There is no shortage of options—at this time of year, advertisements for summer activities and summer camps abound—but nearly all the available options have one thing in common, and that’s a price tag. Some choices, like day camps provided by the local recreation authority can be relatively inexpensive, while the cost of others, like summer-long residential camps or elite-level sports or arts camps, can run into the thousands of dollars.


Keeping up with reporting, remitting, and payment obligations for income taxes, goods and services, or harmonized sales tax and employee source deductions is a constant headache for many small business owners, who would rather be spending their time working to grow their businesses. Staying on top of such obligations is particularly challenging for new small business owners, to whom all such calculations, forms, and remittance deadlines represent new and unfamiliar territory.


By the second week of May 2015, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) had processed about 22 million individual income tax returns filed for the 2014 tax year. Just under two-thirds of those returns (about 64%) resulted in a refund to the taxpayer. About 14% of returns filed and processed required payment of a tax balance by the taxpayer. Just under 20% were what are called “nil” returns – returns where no tax is owing and no refund claimed and the taxpayer is filing in order to provide income information which will be used to determine his or her eligibility for tax credit payments (like the Canada Child Tax Benefit or the HST credit).


Most older Canadians would prefer to stay in their own homes for as long as possible—so-called “aging in place”. Staying in one’s own home throughout retirement has a number of strong points—a familiar environment in a familiar community and, most often, more privacy, independence, and autonomy. There are financial advantages, as well, to aging in place. Care provided in an assisted-living setting (whether a retirement home, a long-term care facility, or a nursing home) is expensive. And, while home ownership means expenses as well, for most retirees the biggest home-related cost—mortgage payments—are no longer a concern.


Two quarterly newsletters have been added—one about personal issues, and one about corporate issues.


Spring is the traditional season for real estate sales and purchases, and the spring of 2015 is proving to be no exception. In fact, the residential real estate market is particularly active this year. According to statistics compiled by the Canadian Real Estate Association (CREA), “actual (not seasonally adjusted) activity in March stood 9.5% above levels reported in March 2014 and slightly above the 10-year average for the month.”


Spring is, of course, income tax return filing season in Canada, and over the next four months millions of Canadians will file a return for the 2014 tax year. The filing deadline for this year is Thursday, April 30 for most taxpayers, and Monday June 15 for self-employed taxpayers and their spouses.


Every annual tax filing season brings with it a number of changes to the annual return. In some years those changes are broad-based, affecting large numbers of taxpayers, while in others the changes are more targeted, and of interest to only specific groups within the overall population.


Two quarterly newsletters have been added—one about personal issues, and one about corporate issues.


Canadian taxpayers don’t need a calendar to know that the registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) contribution deadline is approaching—the glut of television, radio, and internet ads which fill the airwaves and computer screens this time of year are reminder enough. And, while RRSP planning and retirement planning generally are best approached as an ongoing, year-round activity, it is true that an imminent deadline tends to focus the minds of taxpayers on such issues.


The announcement of a change in our tax laws to permit income splitting within families in order to reduce the overall family tax burden has received a lot of attention in the media of late. What’s not as well known is the fact that older Canadian taxpayers have in fact been able for several years to benefit from a similar income splitting strategy. Generally speaking, the opportunity to split pension income is available to couples who are 65 and over, and are receiving income from either RRSP/RRIF savings or from an employer-sponsored pension plan.


The early months of the new calendar year can feel like a never-ending series of bills and other financial obligations. Credit card bills from holiday spending, or perhaps a mid-winter vacation, are due or coming due. The RRSP deadline of March 2, 2015 is approaching, and the April 30, 2015 deadline for payment of 2014 taxes owed is not far behind.


As everyone knows—even those who aren’t parents—raising children is expensive. Even though basic needs like education and health care are publicly funded, there is still a never-ending list of discretionary and non-discretionary costs to be paid.


Planning for 2015 taxes even before the New Year is rung in may seem more than a little premature. Nonetheless, taking some time to review one’s tax situation—and perhaps putting a few strategies in place—at the beginning of the year can help avoid a cash flow crisis or other financial shock when the RRSP contribution deadline looms or it is tax filing (and tax payment) time in the spring of 2016. And, while many tax-planning and tax-saving strategies can be implemented throughout the tax year, getting an early start on such planning usually leads to the best results.


The Employment Insurance premium rate for 2015 is 1.88%.


The Canada Pension Plan contribution rate for 2015 is unchanged at 4.95% of pensionable earnings for the year.


Dollar amounts on which individual non-refundable federal tax credits for 2015 are based, and the actual tax credit claimable, will be as follows:


The indexing factor for federal tax credits and brackets for 2015 is 1.7%. Consequently, the following federal tax rates and brackets will be in effect for individuals for the 2015 tax year.


Each new tax year brings with it a listing of tax payment and filing deadlines, as well as some changes with respect to tax-planning strategies. Some of the more significant dates and changes for individual taxpayers for 2015 are listed herein.


In virtually every province and territory, the winter of 2014-15 has arrived early. Although the calendar may say that it’s still autumn, Canadians right across the country have already had to take out the snow shovels and re-learn winter driving skills. It’s no surprise, then, that the thought of escaping the Canadian winter for at least for a few weeks or months for a vacation down south is a priority for many Canadians.


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